All objects of fixed assets are subject physical and to an obsolescence, i.e. under the influence of various factors lose the properties, become useless and cannot carry out the functions further. Physical wear can be partially compensated due to repair, reconstruction and modernization. The obsolescence is shown that fixed assets according to all the characteristics concede to the latest samples Therefore pereiodichesk there is a need of replacement of fixed assets, especially their active part. Thus in modern economy the main factor defining need of replacement is the obsolescence.
The fixed business assets of the enterprises make the economic circulation consisting of the following stages: wear, depreciation, accumulation of means for a complete recovery of fixed assets, their replacement by capital investments.
On natural material sign fixed assets are subdivided on: buildings, constructions, transfer devices, cars and equipment, vehicles, tools, production and economic stock, working and production cattle etc.
At calculation of depreciation charges use term is important. It is the period of time during which use of fixed assets is urged to bring in the income and to serve as means of achievement of the purpose of the enterprise. For separate groups of fixed assets the term of use is defined proceeding from the volume of production or other natural indicator of the amount of works expected to receiving as a result of their use. The term of use of fixed assets pays off the enterprise at the time of their acceptance on the account.
The linear method of calculation of depreciation is simple, evident and in a certain degree considers process of uniform wear of fixed assets for all service life. The lack of this method is that during service life of the equipment there are its idle times, breakage and incomplete loading for change.
The Snoshenny part of fixed assets postponed for finished goods in process of realization of the last gradually collects in a monetary form in a special sinking fund. This fund is formed by means of monthly depreciation charges and used for simple and partial and expanded reproduction of fixed assets.
use of a linear (uniform) method make 37000 UAH, and at application of the nonlinear – only 10000 UAH. Therefore, though the technique of calculations for a nonlinear method is slightly more difficult, than on linear, but economically it is more favorable, especially at the accounting of an obsolescence.
The mechanism of the accelerated depreciation which means, as a rule, doubling of norm of depreciation charges. Therefore, the payback period is cut by half, leaving of old fixed assets that is, financial investments in the new are stimulated is accelerated. Even if the fixed assets which paid for itself thanks to the accelerated depreciation physically do not wear out, their leaving will allow to introduce more effective equipment which is again appearing in the conditions of development of scientific and technical progress in production.
After product sales the part of a sum of money corresponding to the postponed cost of fixed assets comes to a sinking fund in which there is an accumulation monetary up to the size, approximately corresponding approximate cost of fixed assets (minus their wear. A sinking fund (the sum saved up to the dena is used for acquisition of new material elements of fixed assets instead of worn-out, i.e. there is a restoration of fixed assets.
At the time of acquisition of fixed assets and their acceptance on balance of the enterprise the size of fixed assets quantitatively coincides with the cost of fixed assets. Further, in process of participation of fixed assets in their production forks: one its part equal to wear is transferred to finished goods, and another - expresses the residual cost of the operating fixed assets.
It leads to that in real production the equipment unevenly wears out on time. Besides this method considers an obsolescence of fixed assets which reduces the cost of the produced cars or reduces their potrebitelny cost due to introduction to operation of new, more effective cars and the equipment. It causes early, i.e. before the termination of physical wear, leaving of outdated equipment and conducts to its nedoamortization.